South Sudan: ‘Headwinds’ warning from UN mission chief over peace accord 

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“I telephone connected the parties to muster a renewed consciousness of governmental volition and physique trust, to avoid a authorities of paralysis, and, successful a worst-case scenario, a illness of the bid agreement”, Mr. Haysom said.  

The world’s youngest federation has been mired successful instability and struggle since gaining independency from Sudan 10 years ago. 

In 2018, President Salva Kiir and his erstwhile Vice-President and long-time governmental rival Riek Machar, signed the agreement hoping to extremity the crisis. 

When the Special Representative past briefed the Council, in September, helium noted “significant strides” – but his appraisal was much cautious connected Wednesday, pointing to “reduced momentum”.  

“The steps taken truthful acold successful the implementation of the Revitalized Peace Agreement are welcome, however, they are not capable if the bid process is to beryllium sustained”, helium argued. 

Challenges  

One of the challenges is the constitution of the Necessary Unified Forces, which the Representative called “an archetypal measurement successful a analyzable but indispensable process of constructing a nationalist army.” 

On 8 December, Mr. Haysom met with Salva Kiir, and raised his concerns. After the meeting, the Joint Defense Board announced immoderate advancement connected the Implementation of the transitional information arrangements. 

The President has besides announced elections to beryllium held successful 2023. For the Special Envoy, that volition apt beryllium “a melodramatic challenge” successful the modulation adjacent year.  

The Envoy expects the “domestic governmental somesthesia to rise” arsenic elections gully closer, and helium is “deeply concerned” astatine the restrictions connected civic space.  

He told ambassadors helium was acrophobic astir the dilatory operationalisation of parliament, which mightiness origin a “logjam” connected captious bills to facilitate constitution-making, elections preparations, the constitution of nationalist justness institutions, adopting the nationalist budget, and nationalist fiscal reforms. 

In respect to extortion of civilians, the imperishable ceasefire is holding. The number of civilian casualties attributed to localised unit has astir halved successful 2021, compared to the aforesaid play past year. 

Mr. Haysom attributed this “partly” to the actions of the UN Mission (UNMISS). 

He warned Council members however, that civilians inactive carnivore the brunt of the conflict, “perpetuating cycles of trauma and revenge that undermines the prospects for longer-term reconciliation and societal healing.” 

Humanitarian situation 

The Director of the Coordination Division astatine the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) besides briefed the Council.  

According to Wafaa Saeed, the South Sudanese are facing the highest levels of nutrient insecurity since independency successful 2011 and the renewed conflict, which began successful 2013. 

The latest IPC analysis, indicates that betwixt April and July, 7.2 cardinal radical were estimated to beryllium astatine situation phase, of which 2.4 cardinal are astatine exigency phase. Around 108,000 radical successful six counties faced catastrophic levels of acute nutrient insecurity. 

Nicholas Haysom, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for South Sudan briefs Security Council members connected  the concern    successful  the Sudan and South Sudan.

Nicholas Haysom, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for South Sudan briefs Security Council members connected the concern successful the Sudan and South Sudan., by UN Photo/Loey Felipe

And immoderate 1.4 cardinal children nether the property of 5 and 480,000 large oregon lactating women, are estimated to beryllium acutely malnourished and successful request of attraction - the highest fig since 2013. 

No return 

According to IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix around 300,000 radical were recently displaced betwixt March and October, bringing the fig of internally displaced radical to 2 million.  

Some South Sudanese are besides leaving the country, with astir 70,000 radical crossing implicit into Sudan this twelvemonth alone. 

On apical of each different challenges, Ms. Saeed said, the effects of clime alteration are being felt. Since May, catastrophic flooding for the 3rd consecutive twelvemonth has affected immoderate 835,000 people. 

In her briefing, the OCHA serviceman recalled the communicative of 1 of the victims, Nyawuora, a 40-year-old parent of 9 children, who moved to the Bentiu campy aft losing her location successful a flood.   

She is present 1 of the much than 100,000 radical surviving successful the camp, which the coordinator called “an expanding city”, wherever tens of thousands of radical are facing a Hepatitis E outbreak and superior risks of summation successful waterborne diseases.  

Over the years, 2 cardinal radical person been displaced successful the country. The coordinator said that “return whitethorn not beryllium an option” for many, turning immoderate of the camps into imperishable municipality oregon suburban settlements. 

“This needs to beryllium recognized and steps should beryllium taken to enactment radical wherever they chose to stay. Long-term readying volition beryllium required to code this caller phenomenon”, helium argued.  

UNMISS peacekeepers provided a unafraid  escort to section  women

UNMISS peacekeepers provided a unafraid escort to section women, by UNMISS

Humanitarian assistance 

Ms. Saaed besides informed that South Sudan “remains 1 of the astir unsafe places successful the satellite for assistance workers.” In 2021, four assistance workers person been killed.  

Between January and October, humanitarian partners assisted immoderate 5 cardinal radical crossed the country. They person besides conducted a “massive multi-sectoral response”, which has helped truthful acold to avert famine. 

More than 500,000 radical successful the six food-insecure counties were provided with nutrient assistance, protection, health, and water, hygiene and sanitation services. More than 46,000 children nether property 5 and large and lactating women received therapeutic nutritional services. 

The 2021 South Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan is funded astatine astir 68 per cent, but galore sectors specified arsenic health, nutrition, protection, are severely underfunded.  

For adjacent year, the program requires $1.7 cardinal to enactment 8.4 cardinal radical successful need. 

Plan of action 

Also on Wednesday, stakeholders progressive successful transitional justness processes successful the state adopted a associated strategy and program of enactment to accelerate the implementation of the 2018 Revitalised Peace Agreement.  

The support concluded the “Conference connected sustaining momentum for transitional justness successful South Sudan,” held virtually and successful Nairobi from 13 to 15 December. 

Commission Chair, Yasmin Sooka, opened the Conference saying that “transitional justness is astir information recovery, accountability, reparations for survivors, and organization reform.” 

Chapter 5 of the 2018 Agreement asks for “a holistic and broad programme of transitional justice”, including the constitution of a Commission connected Truth, Reconciliation and Healing. 

For Ms. Sooka, “if done well, this has the imaginable to reconstruct the spot of South Sudanese radical successful the State, and to awesome the government’s committedness to enactment for each its people, irrespective of taste identity.” 

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